Contrary to popular belief the so-called “Binding Problem” does usually not refer to parents and their children’s problems, but to neurological problem. It’s basically how the brain is able to compute all the various inputs and generate one, single smooth world in front of us.
Firstly, there is the segregation problem: a practical computational problem of how brains segregate elements in complex patterns of sensory input so that they are allocated to discrete “objects”. In other words, when looking at a blue square and a yellow circle, what neural mechanisms ensure that the square is perceived as blue and the circle as yellow, and not vice versa? The segregation problem is sometimes called BP1.
Secondly, there is the combination problem: the problem of how objects, background and abstract or emotional features are combined into a single experience. The combination problem is sometimes called BP2.
Christof Koch has an excellent series of classes from CalTech on the topic called “The Neuronal Basis of Consciousness”.